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European Union Law


Question: ‘What are the problems, theoretical and practical, associated with the idea of achieving equality of results?

Discuss in the context of the positive action derogation in Directive 76/207 and relevant cases from the ECJ’

Answer: Over the last twenty or so years, equal opportunities has increased in popularity due to there being more women working in paid...


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  • Subject: Law
  • Course: European Union Law
  • Level: Degree
  • Year: 2nd/3rd
  • Mark: 74%
  • Words: 3392
  • Date submitted: January 28, 2009
  • Date written: October, 2001
  • References: Yes
  • Document type: Essay*
  • Essay ID: 397

Question: According to the “Bavarian Purity Commandment of 1516”, beer must be brewed using only malt, hops, yeast and water. This provision was included in §9 (1) of the German Beer Tax Act. § 10 (1) of the same act:
(a) prohibits the use of any additional ingredients when brewing beer,
(b) prohibits all trade in beer that includes these prohibited ingredients, and
(c) provides, that only drinks brewed according to the purity commandment may be traded under the name “beer” in Germany.

The provision applies equally to domestic and imported products. Most other Member States allow the use of rice, corn and other additional ingredients for the brewing of beer (sic). The effect of the purity commandment is that brewers from other Member States, although allowed to import their drinks to Germany, are prevented from selling or trading them under the name “beer”.

The Commission considers these provisions to be in violation of EU law. Germany argued that the provisions were necessary to protect the consumer. German consumers trust that drinks being sold as “beer” are brewed in accordance to the purity commandment. Moreover, the use of additional ingredients represented a risk for the health of consumers, especially as the long-term effects were unknown. In other Member States, however, there have been no negative effects on the health of consumers caused by the consummation of such drinks brewed using additional ingredients (apart from the usual effect when they had too much of it).

Discuss whether § 10 (1) of the German Beer Tax Act violates EU law.

2nd Year LLB Law - Legal Foundations of the European Union – Mark 72%

Answer: One of the purposes prohibiting charges and restrictions is to promote market access allowing producers to maximize sales and consumers to have...


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  • Subject: Law
  • Course: European Union Law
  • Level: Degree
  • Year: 2nd/3rd
  • Mark: 72%
  • Words: 976
  • Date submitted: April 06, 2017
  • Date written: November, 2016
  • References: Yes
  • Document type: Essay*
  • Essay ID: 7908

Question: Parliamentary sovereignty and the European Community Act (ECA) 1972.

Answer: The doctrine of parliamentary sovereignty as expounded by Dicey means that Parliament has the right to make, unmake or amend any Act...


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  • Subject: Law
  • Course: European Union Law
  • Level: Degree
  • Year: 1st
  • Mark: 72%
  • Words: 1835
  • Date submitted: June 17, 2013
  • Date written: Not available
  • References: Yes
  • Document type: Essay*
  • Essay ID: 4868

Question: DISSERTATION OUTLINE, Title: The effect of European Law upon parliament sovereignty.
Hypothesis: The United Kingdom's membership of the European Union has had an impact on the supremacy of the parliament.

Answer: National sovereignty is often used to mean the people, through their national government, govern their own affairs. The UK, a nation which...


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  • Subject: Law
  • Course: European Union Law
  • Level: Degree
  • Year: 2nd/3rd
  • Mark: 72%
  • Words: 8227
  • Date submitted: January 29, 2009
  • Date written: May, 2006
  • References: Yes
  • Document type: Dissertation
  • Essay ID: 441

Question: The conflict between the traditional concept of sovereignty of Parliament - a concept which purports that the United Kingdom's legislative body (Parliament) is supreme to all other government institutions - and the concept of European supremacy.

Answer: The hypothesis of this paper relates to the seemingly irreconcilable conflict between the traditional concept of the Sovereignty of Parliament - a...


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  • Subject: Law
  • Course: European Union Law
  • Level: Degree
  • Year: 2nd/3rd
  • Mark: 71%
  • Words: 9981
  • Date submitted: April 18, 2009
  • Date written: April, 2006
  • References: Yes
  • Document type: Dissertation
  • Essay ID: 1436

Question: In what ways has the status of European Union Law been elevated into one of supremacy over national laws? 70%

Answer: This essay considers the status of European Union Law in relation to national laws. It explains how where conflict occurs between it...


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  • Subject: Law
  • Course: European Union Law
  • Level: Degree
  • Year: 2nd/3rd
  • Mark: 70%
  • Words: 1747
  • Date submitted: November 25, 2009
  • Date written: Not available
  • References: No
  • Document type: Essay*
  • Essay ID: 6888

Question: Direct effect is an important principle created by the European Court of Justice. It is a novel legal concept that follows on from the principle of the supremacy of European law.

Critically review the requirements for direct effects of European Union law.

Answer: I. INTRODUCTION Lord Denning once noted that “the EEC treaty is like an incoming tide. It flows into the estuaries and up...


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  • Subject: Law
  • Course: European Union Law
  • Level: Degree
  • Year: 2nd/3rd
  • Mark: 70%
  • Words: 2440
  • Date submitted: March 18, 2014
  • Date written: March, 2011
  • References: Yes
  • Document type: Essay*
  • Essay ID: 5498

Question: The English legal system can no longer be considered on its own, but has to be understood within the Context of the European Union and its institutions.

What are the institutions referred to and what is their impact on the English legal system?

Answer: The European Community was set up by the EEC Treaty (known as the Treaty of Rome and later re-named the EC Treaty)...


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  • Subject: Law
  • Course: European Union Law
  • Level: Degree
  • Year: 2nd/3rd
  • Mark: 70%
  • Words: 1982
  • Date submitted: January 27, 2013
  • Date written: Not available
  • References: No
  • Document type: Essay*
  • Essay ID: 4441

Question: The University of Liverpool LLB Law – 2st Year

Explain the purpose of The Committee of Permanent Representatives, The Economic and Social Committee and The Court of First Instance in no more than 1500 words.

Answer: The Committee of Permanent Representatives (COREPER ) The Committee of Permanent Representatives is frequently represented by the acronym COREPER which in turn...


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  • Subject: Law
  • Course: European Union Law
  • Level: Degree
  • Year: 2nd/3rd
  • Mark: 70%
  • Words: 1500
  • Date submitted: February 21, 2010
  • Date written: November, 2009
  • References: No
  • Document type: Essay*
  • Essay ID: 3319

Question: 'In developing the doctrine of supremacy of European law, the European Court of Justice acted in a manner that was not only justified, but moreover indispensable to reach the fundamental objectives the Member States had agreed upon in the Treaty of Rome.' Do you agree?

Answer: The European Court of Justice has asserted that “the essential characteristic of Community [law is] its primacy over the law of the...


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  • Subject: Law
  • Course: European Union Law
  • Level: Degree
  • Year: 2nd/3rd
  • Mark: 70%
  • Words: 2244
  • Date submitted: February 05, 2009
  • Date written: November, 2003
  • References: Yes
  • Document type: Essay*
  • Essay ID: 645

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