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I.T. and the Law


Question: Discuss the extent to which IT may affect the resolution and avoidance of disputes over the next decade and the extent to which solicitors and judges may be affected by such changes. (Mark 72%)

Answer: If Lord Woolf’s ‘Access to Justice: Final Report’ is to be influential in the longer term, it will be because it gave...


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  • Subject: Law
  • Course: I.T. and the Law
  • Level: Degree
  • Year: 2nd/3rd
  • Mark: 72%
  • Words: 3701
  • Date submitted: January 28, 2009
  • Date written: March, 2001
  • References: Yes
  • Document type: Essay*
  • Essay ID: 403

Question: Topic: - The passage of ss. 63-67 Criminal Justice and Immigration Act 2008 (extreme pornography) and ss.60-66 and Schedule 13 of the Coroners and Justice Act 2009 (prohibited image of a child), simply adds another layer of unnecessary complexity to the law relating to obscene and indecent materials.

UNIVERISTY OF BRISTOL
School of Law | Subject: - Information Technology | Degree – LL.M Commercial Law

Answer: INTRODUCTION In general view pornography is defined as obscene writings, drawings, photographs, or the like specially those have little or no artistic...


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  • Subject: Law
  • Course: I.T. and the Law
  • Level: Degree
  • Year: 2nd/3rd
  • Mark: 70%
  • Words: 2985
  • Date submitted: July 28, 2012
  • Date written: March, 2012
  • References: Yes
  • Document type: Essay*
  • Essay ID: 4236

Question: Please comment on the following summary of this ITIF report on mobile zero rating. Critically analyse its content with reference to our course materials.

Information Technology and the Law (IT Law)
LLB Law
Year 2
London School of Economics and Political Science
Essay mark: 66% (2:1)

Mobile Zero Rating: The Economics and Innovation Behind Free Data.
By Doug Brake - May 2016
SUMMARY
Zero-rating programs, which allow consumers to access certain Internet content and services without it counting against their monthly data plans, have proven polarizing, being met with reactions ranging from derision to praise. The crux of the controversy is whether the practice of zero rating violates the spirit of network neutrality principles. Strictly speaking, zero-rated data is treated differently than other data in a way that influences consumer behavior. But adhering to such a strict interpretation of net neutrality would be misguided. Zero-rating products are unlikely to harm the open Internet; instead they are a sign of healthy product differentiation that more efficiently allocates scarce resources in a competitive market, ultimately improving consumer value. The Federal Communications Commission—along with other regulators around the world—is examining zero rating, and while its case-by-case approach to overseeing these programs is sound, telecom regulators should make it clear that they believe nonexclusive zero-rating programs are in the public interest.
Zero rating is being rolled out, by major carriers in the United States and around the world. Zero rating offers a number of benefits.
First, it is good economics to help advance innovation in information technology markets. Where both content or “edge” firms as well as network operators make large investments in establishing platforms that have relatively low marginal costs, and gain value with each additional user, zero rating can help bring new customers into a firm’s customer base, enhancing the value of the product, and providing additional revenues to defray the investment for additional innovation.
Second, zero rating is an important tool to expand access to information, particularly in developing countries. As of 2015, mobile broadband networks covered about 78 percent of the world’s population, but only 43 percent were actually using the Internet. That 35 percent—some 2.5 billion people—who have access to mobile networks, but choose not to subscribe, could be given the opportunity, with zero-rating programs, to connect at a relatively low cost.
Third, zero rating is generally pro-competitive. There is little difference between zero rating and common-place discounts that sellers provide through middlemen that everyone accepts as normal, like toll-free 800 numbers. Zero rating allows for differentiation of company offerings, both at the application layer and between competing carriers. This ability to differentiate services tends to most benefit maverick firms that change the terms on which firms compete, and allows new applications a foothold to get discovered.
Fourth, consumers enjoy zero rating plans, and appreciate the ability to use zero-rated apps without having to worry about their data limits. We should celebrate when competitive markets work to provide consumers more of what they want. Critics argue that zero rating is against the public interest, but the bar for arguing that the public interest directly contravenes consumer preference should be a high one.
Fifth, zero rating programs can lead to more efficient use of networks if they zero-rated services use fewer bits than a non-zero rated version while having essentially no diminution of quality and customer experience.
Lastly, zero rating can help facilitate more efficient advertising, leading to more transactions online, boosting economic growth and adding fuel to continued growth in the advertising supported Internet.
These programs are a win for “edge” video providers, who see more use of their products and services. They are also a win for network operators, who are working to gain market share and explore new business models to meet demand. And most importantly, they are a big win for consumers, who end up getting more for less.

Answer: The big question that arises in net neutrality debate is should we regulate the Internet, or should we not, as zero-rating is...


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  • Subject: Law
  • Course: I.T. and the Law
  • Level: Degree
  • Year: 2nd/3rd
  • Mark: 66%
  • Words: 750
  • Date submitted: December 02, 2018
  • Date written: November, 2018
  • References: Yes
  • Document type: Essay*
  • Essay ID: 8574

Question: Topic: - Open source software licensing is simply a utopian ideal: commercial logic and technological advances will banish it to the history books.

UNIVERISTY OF BRISTOL
School of Law | Subject: - Information Technology | Degree – LL.M Commercial Law

Answer: Development of open source software: When IBM and others sold the first large-scale commercial computers, in the 1960s, they came with some...


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  • Subject: Law
  • Course: I.T. and the Law
  • Level: Degree
  • Year: 2nd/3rd
  • Mark: 65%
  • Words: 2937
  • Date submitted: July 28, 2012
  • Date written: May, 2012
  • References: Yes
  • Document type: Essay*
  • Essay ID: 4235

Question: Assess the impact of digital information, particularly that of computer programs, on Intellectual Property Law. What can be and has been done to meet the demands of this dynamic new area of law.

Answer: This essay shall focus on the impact of Digital Information, and particularly that of computer programs, on Intellectual Property law, and what...


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  • Subject: Law
  • Course: I.T. and the Law
  • Level: Degree
  • Year: 2nd/3rd
  • Mark: 63%
  • Words: 2558
  • Date submitted: February 07, 2009
  • Date written: Not available
  • References: No
  • Document type: Essay*
  • Essay ID: 680

Question: Examine the operation of the law in relation to hacking and computer fraud. What are the advantages and disadvantages of these legal measures?

Answer: Computers have made such an impact on society that they are now essential for the smooth running of day-to-day activities. They are...


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  • Subject: Law
  • Course: I.T. and the Law
  • Level: Degree
  • Year: 1st
  • Mark: 60%
  • Words: 1749
  • Date submitted: February 02, 2009
  • Date written: Not available
  • References: No
  • Document type: Essay*
  • Essay ID: 537

Question: Evaluate the legal protection given to databases under the Maltese Copyright Act 2000.

Answer: A computer database is a collection of information stored on computer media. The range of things, which may be included in a...


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  • Subject: Law
  • Course: I.T. and the Law
  • Level: Degree
  • Year: 1st
  • Mark: Not available
  • Words: 1433
  • Date submitted: February 07, 2009
  • Date written: October, 2001
  • References: Yes
  • Document type: Essay*
  • Essay ID: 684

Question: "The internet and the World Wide Web will come to play a central role in society" How far is this statement true of the English Legal System?

Answer: Although this point has been made elsewhere, it is necessary to stipulate that it is a rather limiting assumption to make when...


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  • Subject: Law
  • Course: I.T. and the Law
  • Level: Degree
  • Year: 1st
  • Mark: Not available
  • Words: 1031
  • Date submitted: January 28, 2009
  • Date written: June, 2001
  • References: No
  • Document type: Essay*
  • Essay ID: 404

Question: Beyond Woolf: The Virtual Court House

Answer: The purpose of this article is to anticipate how information technology will change key aspects of the administration of justice over the...


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  • Subject: Law
  • Course: I.T. and the Law
  • Level: Degree
  • Year: 2nd/3rd
  • Mark: Not available
  • Words: 4395
  • Date submitted: January 28, 2009
  • Date written: November, 1997
  • References: Yes
  • Document type: Essay*
  • Essay ID: 402

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