Home > SDK100 Science and health: an evidence-based approach

Question: TMA 01 SDK100 PDP self-evaluation

Question 1: Personal Development Plan
1. What made you decide to study this module?
2. How do you think your previous experience of work, education or everyday life might have prepared you for this module?
3. Briefly describe one occasion on which you have successfully used one of the following skills or strengths:
• problem solving – identifying a problem and finding a successful solution
• working with others
• communicating, e.g. listening, convincing, negotiating or informing other people
• finding or using information
• managing yourself, e.g. working under pressure or taking responsibility.
4. Identify at least one area where you feel you’d like to develop better study skills or more confidence (this could be an academic skill such as writing, numeracy or IT skills, or more a general skill such as organisation or time-management).
5. When you have completed your module or qualification studies, what are your longer-term goals?


Question 2: “It states in the document Prevention is better than cure for Emerging Infectious Diseases (David Heymann and Osman Dar 2004) that approximately two thirds of emerging infectious diseases around the world occur as a result of Zoonoses. Using Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) as an example, it interests me that with a history of centuries of these animals being domesticated and co-exisiting with humans, what combination of factors caused the microbes the opportunity to cross the barrier from animal to human at this particular time?”*
[*Shave, L. (2018) ‘EIDs discussion’, message to SDK100 tutor group forum of tutor J.Beal, message posted 5 February 2018.]


Question 3:
a) You learnt about six main categories of pathogen in Topic 1 Section 3. State which one of these categories includes the measles pathogen, and name one other disease that you have learnt about in Topic 1 that is caused by the same category of pathogen.
b) How is measles transmitted and which of the transmission routes that you learnt about in Topic 1 does it illustrate?
c) According to the relevant WHO factsheet, how many people died from measles globally in 2016? If the global population in 2016 was 7.4 billion (7 400 million) calculate the global measles mortality rate per 100 000 people in 2016. Show your workings and round your answer to one decimal place per 100 000. Note: be very careful if you use a calculator. Some calculators (particularly those on phones) will not have space for all the digits in very large numbers.
d) Among other things, measles can cause muscle aches, fever and a skin rash. Which of these are signs and which are symptoms? Briefly explain why
e) According to the relevant WHO Fact sheet, explain which group(s) in the population and which areas of the world are the most vulnerable to significant health risks and death from measles infection.
f) Briefly describe how the spread of measles is prevented and how this prevention strategy achieves its beneficial effect.
g) Give the reference to the website that you researched for your answers


Question 4:
a) What was the estimated global morbidity rate in DALYs per 100 000 population due to lower respiratory infections (LRIs) in 2016 in both sexes combined in the age group 0-6 days? Round your answer to the nearest whole number and write it in your TMA document in a clearly worded sentence including all the essential information.
b) Identify the total number of deaths globally from diarrhoeal diseases in 2016 in both sexes combined in each of the three age groups aged under one year. Add the three values together, round the result to the nearest whole number and express the combined total number of infant deaths in a clearly worded sentence including all the essential information.
c) Which age group, 0–6 days or 80-84 years, had the highest number (#) of female deaths from LRIs in Sub-Saharan Africa in 2016? Round each value to the nearest whole number and state them both in your answer, expressed in a clearly worded sentence including all the essential information.
d) Which sex, males or females, aged 0-6 days had the highest mortality (death) rate per 100 000 population from meningitis in Sub-Saharan Africa in 2016? Round each value to the nearest whole number and state them both in your answer, expressed in a clearly worded sentence including all the essential information.



Question 5:
a) You will be awarded 6 marks for entering the total number of leukocytes you counted in your assigned track (A to U) of both the Normal and Leukocytosis slides into the Summary results Table for Topic 1, Activity 7.1 (Wiki) by the cut-off date shown in the Study planner. You will also be awarded 4 marks for the accuracy of your cell counts within a reasonable range.
Please refer to Track N of the Summary Results Table for Topic 1, Activity 7.1
Summary Results Table for Topic 1, Activity 7.1 (Wiki)

b) For this part of the question you will calculate the ratio between the number of leukocytes in your assigned track of the Normal blood smear and the number in the same track of the Leukocytosis smear. Using the method described below, calculate the ratio of N : L leukocytes in your assigned track of the two blood smears. The N side of the ratio should equal 1 and the number you calculate for the L side of the ratio should be rounded to one decimal place. Show your working and state your N : L track ratio in your TMA, and include the letter identifying the track you counted on each slide.

c) After the cut-off date for entering data into the Wiki table, you should copy and paste the whole table into your TMA. It does not matter if some students in your group have not entered their track counts i.e. if a few tracks are missing when you copy the Wiki table. 5 of the marks for this part are for including the Wiki table in your TMA.

d) You now have two different N : L ratios which you have obtained by counting the leukocytes in the two blood samples; firstly, by counting the number of leukocytes in a single track (part (b) above) and secondly by combining your whole group’s data for all 21 tracks (part (c) above). But which of these two ratios is likely to be the most accurate, i.e. reflect the true N : L ratio of leukocytes in the blood circulation of the individuals who gave the blood samples? In your TMA, state which of these two ratios is likely to be more accurate (closer to the true N : L ratio) and briefly explain why you reached this conclusion.

e) When you were counting leukocytes in your track, you may have seen one or more of these cells straddling the margin of a red grid square in your assigned track. If you did not encounter this situation in the tracks of either of the blood smears that you counted, go back to the ‘Instructions for Topic 1 Activity 7.1’ and look at Figure 3. This situation requires you to decide whether the cell straddling the red line is in your track or in the next track.
For this last part of the question you should briefly describe how you decided/would decide whether to count (or not to count) these ‘marginal’ cells as being in your track. There isn’t a ‘right answer’ – your task is to explain how you reached your decision and state it clearly in a few sentences. As part of your explanation you should discuss how the accuracy of the tutor group data would be affected if individual students used different criteria to decide whether to count (or not count) leukocytes on the margins of red squares in their assigned tracks. Would it make any difference if the cells overlapped left/right sides of a grid square, compared to the top/bottom sides of a grid square?

Answer: Question 1:
1. I have always had an interest in human illnesses from a young age, and was a key reason as to why I studied Archaeology at the University of Aberdeen – I had the intention of researching genetic diseases through MtDNA analysis, focusing on a specific location in the medieval era. However, since my diagnoses of Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, fibromyalgia, osteoarthritis, Raynaud’s syndrome, Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome and mental health illnesses, (I’m so sorry for the list!), my interests have changed to considering what researchers have already discovered, and this module seems to encompass a lot of the qualities that interest me, especially the first topic; infectious diseases.

2. Previously I have taken part in archaeological lectures that have looked into infectious and genetic diseases, but this was mainly focused between the 6th and 18th centuries ...(short extract)

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  • Subject: The science of human health
  • Course: SDK100 Science and health: an evidence-based approach
  • Level: Degree
  • Year: 1st
  • Mark: Not available
  • Words: 3211
  • Date submitted: May 31, 2018
  • Date written: February, 2018
  • References: No
  • Document type: Essay*
  • Essay ID: 8420

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