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Question: Please comment on the following summary of this ITIF report on mobile zero rating. Critically analyse its content with reference to our course materials.

Information Technology and the Law (IT Law)
LLB Law
Year 2
London School of Economics and Political Science
Essay mark: 66% (2:1)

Mobile Zero Rating: The Economics and Innovation Behind Free Data.
By Doug Brake - May 2016
SUMMARY
Zero-rating programs, which allow consumers to access certain Internet content and services without it counting against their monthly data plans, have proven polarizing, being met with reactions ranging from derision to praise. The crux of the controversy is whether the practice of zero rating violates the spirit of network neutrality principles. Strictly speaking, zero-rated data is treated differently than other data in a way that influences consumer behavior. But adhering to such a strict interpretation of net neutrality would be misguided. Zero-rating products are unlikely to harm the open Internet; instead they are a sign of healthy product differentiation that more efficiently allocates scarce resources in a competitive market, ultimately improving consumer value. The Federal Communications Commission—along with other regulators around the world—is examining zero rating, and while its case-by-case approach to overseeing these programs is sound, telecom regulators should make it clear that they believe nonexclusive zero-rating programs are in the public interest.
Zero rating is being rolled out, by major carriers in the United States and around the world. Zero rating offers a number of benefits.
First, it is good economics to help advance innovation in information technology markets. Where both content or “edge” firms as well as network operators make large investments in establishing platforms that have relatively low marginal costs, and gain value with each additional user, zero rating can help bring new customers into a firm’s customer base, enhancing the value of the product, and providing additional revenues to defray the investment for additional innovation.
Second, zero rating is an important tool to expand access to information, particularly in developing countries. As of 2015, mobile broadband networks covered about 78 percent of the world’s population, but only 43 percent were actually using the Internet. That 35 percent—some 2.5 billion people—who have access to mobile networks, but choose not to subscribe, could be given the opportunity, with zero-rating programs, to connect at a relatively low cost.
Third, zero rating is generally pro-competitive. There is little difference between zero rating and common-place discounts that sellers provide through middlemen that everyone accepts as normal, like toll-free 800 numbers. Zero rating allows for differentiation of company offerings, both at the application layer and between competing carriers. This ability to differentiate services tends to most benefit maverick firms that change the terms on which firms compete, and allows new applications a foothold to get discovered.
Fourth, consumers enjoy zero rating plans, and appreciate the ability to use zero-rated apps without having to worry about their data limits. We should celebrate when competitive markets work to provide consumers more of what they want. Critics argue that zero rating is against the public interest, but the bar for arguing that the public interest directly contravenes consumer preference should be a high one.
Fifth, zero rating programs can lead to more efficient use of networks if they zero-rated services use fewer bits than a non-zero rated version while having essentially no diminution of quality and customer experience.
Lastly, zero rating can help facilitate more efficient advertising, leading to more transactions online, boosting economic growth and adding fuel to continued growth in the advertising supported Internet.
These programs are a win for “edge” video providers, who see more use of their products and services. They are also a win for network operators, who are working to gain market share and explore new business models to meet demand. And most importantly, they are a big win for consumers, who end up getting more for less.

Answer: The big question that arises in net neutrality debate is should we regulate the Internet, or should we not, as zero-rating is...


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  • Subject: Law
  • Course: I.T. and the Law
  • Level: Degree
  • Year: 2nd/3rd
  • Mark: 66%
  • Words: 750
  • Date submitted: December 02, 2018
  • Date written: November, 2018
  • References: Yes
  • Document type: Essay*
  • Essay ID: 8574

Question: Law and the Institutions of European Union Essay
LLB Law 2nd Year
London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE)
Mark graded: 63 (2:1)

“The main purpose of the EU is the management of interdependence. To do this appropriately, power needs to be in the hands of bureaucrats and experts”. Discuss.

Answer: What is the relative power of the European Commission, the Council of Ministers and the European Parliament (EP) in the European Union...


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  • Subject: Law
  • Course: European Union Law
  • Level: Degree
  • Year: 2nd/3rd
  • Mark: 63%
  • Words: 1470
  • Date submitted: December 01, 2018
  • Date written: March, 2018
  • References: Yes
  • Document type: Essay*
  • Essay ID: 8573

Question: Land Law Problem Question Essay
LLB Law 2nd Year
London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE)
Mark graded: 60 (2:1)

In 2014 Astrid, an accountant, bought a one-bedroom flat with an adjoining garage. At that time her girlfriend, Bernice, worked at the estate agents which was selling the flat. By virtue of her position there, Bernice was able to secure for Astrid a £2,000 discount on the purchase price of the property. In 2016, Bernice gave up her job at the estate agents’ in order to pursue a career as a musician; since then, she has spent a significant portion of each year on tour. When not on tour, Bernice spends some of her time staying with friends and between five and eight months of each year with Astrid. Bernice makes no contributions to the mortgage, though once, after a successful tour, she gave Astrid £1,000 which Astrid chose to use to pay off some of the mortgage loan. 


Earlier this year, while Bernice was on a lengthy tour abroad, Astrid decided to make a cash sale of the flat to Craig, a friend of a friend. Craig, who had recently benefited from an inheritance, was about to begin working nearby and wanted to buy a property quickly. When Craig inspected the flat he found an array of musical instruments in the bedroom and the living area. Craig said to Astrid: “You must be a very creative accountant!” Astrid didn’t respond. In the bedroom Craig noticed two toothbrushes, women’s clothes, jewellery and toiletries. In the garage there was a car and a motorbike. “Does anyone live here with you?”, Craig asked Astrid. She replied: “there’s someone who stays with me sometimes but it would be stretching things to say they live here. I bought the flat, and it’s mine to sell. If you’ve any doubts, check the Land Register.” Craig checked with the Land Registry and, discovering that Astrid was sole legal title-holder to the property and that there were no interests registered against the title, decided he would buy the flat.

This week, just as the conveyance of the flat from Astrid to Craig was to be completed, Bernice returned from tour. When Astrid told her of the sale to Craig, Bernice said it couldn’t go ahead. “I occupy this flat. I reckon I’ve got property rights, and I’ve certainly got human rights!” 


Advise Bernice.

Answer: In this scenario, we can discern that Astrid according to the orthodox are recognized as sole legal title to the property. However,...


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  • Subject: Law
  • Course: Land Law
  • Level: Degree
  • Year: 2nd/3rd
  • Mark: 60%
  • Words: 1291
  • Date submitted: November 30, 2018
  • Date written: March, 2018
  • References: Yes
  • Document type: Essay*
  • Essay ID: 8572

Question: TMA 04 Write a reflective account of practice experience you have been involved in. this does not have to be a major piece of work or something that seeks to show your skills or depths of experience.

You can reflect on brief interactions or situations where you have been expected to intervene or help in some way.

You can even use an incident from outside your practice setting, but if you do this, you need to show how your reflection relates to your own understanding and development as a social worker.

KYJ113 Foundations For Social Work Practice
Level 2 year 2
Undergraduate
Counting towards BA Social Work (Scotland)
Mark Achieved 80%

Answer: Throughout this assignment, I will reflect on a practice experience in which I support a mother of a child with complex needs...


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  • Subject: Law
  • Course: KYJ113 Foundations For Social Work Practice
  • Level: Degree
  • Year: 2nd/3rd
  • Mark: 80%
  • Words: 1573
  • Date submitted: November 24, 2018
  • Date written: October, 2017
  • References: Yes
  • Document type: Essay*
  • Essay ID: 8567

Question: TMA 4 Case Study.
1. Describe the criminal justice processes that Henry's case may be subject to as a result of the charges and outline the options available to the various decision-makers at each stage.

2. Identify the opportunities for social work involvement with Henry during relevant justice processes and explain the roles and responsibilities that the social workers might have in this case.

3. Outline the possible outcomes for Henry in this case. In what ways might these outcomes have differed if Henry had been aged 15 at the time of the offence?

Level 4 year 4
Undergraduate
Counting towards BA Social Work (Scotland)
Mark Achieved 72%

Answer: Criminal Justice legislation is central to social control and key to effecting positive changes concerning offending. S41 of The Criminal Procedure (Scotland)...


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  • Subject: Law
  • Course: K207 The law and social work in Scotland
  • Level: Degree
  • Year: 2nd/3rd
  • Mark: 72%
  • Words: 2197
  • Date submitted: November 24, 2018
  • Date written: October, 2017
  • References: Yes
  • Document type: Essay*
  • Essay ID: 8566

Question: TMA 01 Social workers need to know the law in order to practice effectively. Discuss, illustrating your answer with brief practice examples.

K207 The law and social work in Scotland
Level 4 year 4 – Undergraduate
Counting towards BA Social Work (Scotland)
Mark Achieved 68%

Answer: Social workers need to know the law to practice effectively. Exploring the relationship between law and the fluid context of Social Work,...


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  • Subject: Law
  • Course: K207 The law and social work in Scotland
  • Level: Degree
  • Year: 2nd/3rd
  • Mark: 68%
  • Words: 1649
  • Date submitted: November 24, 2018
  • Date written: October, 2017
  • References: Yes
  • Document type: Essay*
  • Essay ID: 8565

Question: Advocacy Speech Critique.

• Legal skills
• Theory of the case:
• Responding to the Judges interventions and handling a weak point
• Deciding to engage in sufficient zeal or excessive zeal and deciding how to open my case
• Ethical Issues:
• What approach did I decide to take?
• Last minute call from a witness and using a statement when there is evidence that the witness is lying

Answer: In this critique I will be focusing on four lawyering issues which arose in my advocacy speech, as well as showing what...


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  • Subject: Law
  • Course: Legal Practice Course
  • Level: Degree
  • Year: Graduate
  • Mark: Not available
  • Words: 2206
  • Date submitted: May 03, 2018
  • Date written: February, 2018
  • References: Yes
  • Document type: Essay*
  • Essay ID: 8399

Question: ‘The case law concerning the acquisition and quantification of property rights in cases of the shared family home reveals neither a coherent conceptual basis for the applicable legal principles nor a convincing policy analysis of why the law takes its current form’.

Assess this statement.

Answer: Statutory and common law lays out the legal framework of co-ownership of a family home. The Trust of Land and Appointment of...


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  • Subject: Law
  • Course: Land Law
  • Level: Degree
  • Year: 2nd/3rd
  • Mark: Not available
  • Words: 2175
  • Date submitted: March 21, 2018
  • Date written: December, 2016
  • References: Yes
  • Document type: Essay*
  • Essay ID: 8343

Question: PQ: Ralph and Sophie are actors in an action film. There is a scene in which they throw knives at each other. Sophie and Ralph agree that they should film the scene with real knives in order to make it as realistic as possible, despite the obvious dangers.

Sophie in fact hates Ralph and throws a knife not caring whether or not it harms him. The knife narrowly misses Ralph’s head. Ralph throws a knife at Sophie aware there is a strong chance that it will hit her in the leg but assuming that under their agreement Sophie is prepared to take that risk.

The knife cuts Sophie in the stomach. She is taken to the emergency room of a hospital.

Dr Tao, who has drunk several pints of beer while on her shift, examines Sophie and seriously over-estimates the severity of the wound. She incorrectly tells Sophie that she is likely to be paralyzed for the rest of her life. Sophie as a result decides she would rather die and refuses all forms of treatment. The wound therefore becomes infected and Sophie dies.

What crimes, if any, have been committed?

Answer: This essay explores Ralph’s and Dr Tao’s criminal liability in causing Sophie’s death. Ultimately, it would conclude that Sophie’s refusal to treatment...


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  • Subject: Law
  • Course: Criminal Law
  • Level: Degree
  • Year: 1st
  • Mark: Not available
  • Words: 1164
  • Date submitted: March 04, 2018
  • Date written: October, 2017
  • References: No
  • Document type: Essay*
  • Essay ID: 8304

Question: When can a defendant who has lost self-control and kills rely on a defence? Is the present state of law satisfactory?

Graded 2.1, 1st year undergraduate at University of Oxford, reading Jurisprudence

Answer: The loss of self-control, which substitutes a conviction of murder with manslaughter, becomes an available defence for a defendant (D) once there...


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  • Subject: Law
  • Course: Criminal Law
  • Level: Degree
  • Year: 1st
  • Mark: Not available
  • Words: 1200
  • Date submitted: March 04, 2018
  • Date written: October, 2017
  • References: No
  • Document type: Essay*
  • Essay ID: 8303

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