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Question: Protecting Children from the Risk of Harm: do current sexual offences legislation provide the protection the 1956 Act failed to provide?

Answer: In 2002, the incumbent Home Secretary, David Blunkett, stated that the law prior to the Sexual Offences Act 2003 was “archaic and...


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  • Subject: Law
  • Course: Criminal Law
  • Level: Degree
  • Year: 2nd/3rd
  • Mark: Not available
  • Words: 2671
  • Date submitted: March 21, 2016
  • Date written: December, 2015
  • References: Yes
  • Document type: Essay*
  • Essay ID: 7707

Question: On the principles of direct effect, indirect effect and state liability.

Answer: Introduction The principles of direct effect, indirect effect and state liability, developed by the European Court of Justice (ECJ) are, individually, crucially...


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  • Subject: Law
  • Course: European Union Law
  • Level: Degree
  • Year: 2nd/3rd
  • Mark: Not available
  • Words: 2498
  • Date submitted: April 18, 2016
  • Date written: February, 2016
  • References: Yes
  • Document type: Essay*
  • Essay ID: 7695

Question: Question: eTMA 05 Consider the criminal liability of Nigel, Simon, Zack and Tessa.
W201 Law: the individual and the state Feb 2014

Scenario: Mary has just separated from her husband, Nigel, because he has been violent towards her. Mary has stayed in the house that she and Nigel used to share and Nigel has moved out to live with his identical twin brother, William. Mary has changed the locks on the doors of the house and told Nigel that he must never come round. One night, Nigel waits outside the house for Mary to come home from work. Mary unlocks her door and goes back to her car to take out some grocer-ies. Nigel quickly goes into the house through the open door and hides in the hallway. When Mary comes into the house, Nigel slams the door behind her. Mary is startled when she sees Nigel and, thinking he is going to hit her, she screams “get out”. Nigel tells Mary he has missed her and he pushes her to the floor in the hallway. He kisses her roughly and fondles her breasts. Mary is horri-fied. She manages to break free from Nigel and she runs from the house.

When Mary returns to the house an hour later, Nigel has gone. Mary telephones her brother, Simon, and tells him what has happened. Simon is furious and goes round to Nigel’s house to confront him. On the way to Nigel’s house, Simon meets a friend, Zack, who is a local police officer. Zack has just started his nightshift and walks with Simon to Nigel’s house. When they get to the house, Simon is surprised to see a man lying flat on the driveway with blood pouring from his head. Simon thinks the man is Nigel, although it is Nigel’s twin brother, William. Simon and Zack both realise that the man needs urgent medical attention. Zack pulls out his police radio to summon
assistance. Simon says “No Zack – this is the guy who attacked my sister – he doesn’t deserve your help.” Zack replies “You’re probably right – someone will find him in time”. Simon and Zack walk away without helping William.

When William is found by a neighbour some time later, he has lost a large amount of blood. He dies of his injuries on the way to hospital. Doctors later tell William’s family that if he had received treat-ment earlier he might have survived, though his injuries were serious.

The police subsequently discover that William’s head injury was caused by Nigel’s girlfriend, Tessa. Tessa tells police that since she met Nigel a few months ago, their relationship has often been vio-lent: Nigel is prone to bouts of drinking and, when drunk, often lashes out. Tessa has been injured by Nigel twice and most recently had a hospital stay of 4 days when Nigel knocked her uncon-scious and broke her arm.

Tessa tells the police that Nigel had attacked her again earlier that day. She decided she had had enough and went to Nigel’s house to tell him the relationship was over. She says that when she ar-rived at the house, she thought it was Nigel who was standing on the driveway. Tessa says that she suddenly snapped and decided she had to kill Nigel. She grabbed a brick and hit the man over the head several times. When he was slumped to the floor she realised that the man was William, not Nigel. Tessa says she panicked and ran off.

Answer: Criminal liability of Nigel Mary changed the locks on the doors of her house and told her ex husband Nigel that he...


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  • Subject: Law
  • Course: W201 Law: the individual and the state
  • Level: Degree
  • Year: 2nd/3rd
  • Mark: Not available
  • Words: 2218
  • Date submitted: November 04, 2016
  • Date written: February, 2014
  • References: No
  • Document type: Essay*
  • Essay ID: 7667

Question: TMA 02 Question 1 Explain how judicial precedent operates within the common law system of England and Wales. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of judicial precedent.

a. Provide a plan setting out how you will address the question. (10 marks) (Word count 107)
b. Provide your answer to this question. (30 marks) (Word count 493)
______________________________________________

TMA 02 Question 2 Please read the following fictitious scenario and answer all parts of each question. (Word count 760)
Scenario
The (fictitious) Prevention of Cruelty to Pets Act 2018 states in section 5 that: ‘Dogs must be carried on escalators.’

An excerpt from Hansard shows that, during the Second Reading of the Prevention of Cruelty to Pets Bill, the Minister for Animal Health and Well-Being had said, referring to what would become section 5 of the Act: ‘It is no longer tolerable that, in our so-called civilised society, individuals are permitted to subject creatures with paws to the risk of painful entrapment of their limbs on moving staircases. I urge the House to support this provision.’

Section 28 of the Prevention of Cruelty to Pets Act 2018, which is headed ‘Definitions’, states: ‘Where the context so requires, “dogs” should be interpreted as including dogs, cats and other animals that are commonly kept as pets and permitted to roam at large within their owners’ homes’.

Question: Explain, with reasons, the likely outcome if each of the four rules of statutory interpretation were applied to each of the following people:
• (a) Alfonso, who is travelling on an escalator with a rabbit on a lead. The rabbit is standing on the step above Alfonso.
• (b) Melody, who is travelling on an escalator with a Chihuahua in her designer handbag. The handbag is balanced on top of a suitcase that is standing on the step below Melody. Melody is lightly supporting the suitcase with her hand so that it will not fall over if the escalator jerks.
______________________________________________

TMA 02 Question 3 Identify one positive piece of feedback and one piece of advice on how to improve your future assignments that you received from your tutor for TMA 01, and explain how you made use of them when you were working on this TMA. (Word count 760)

Answer: TMA 02 Question 1 This essay seeks to provide an explanation to how the judicial precedent operates within the common law system...


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  • Subject: Law
  • Course: W101 An introduction to law
  • Level: Degree
  • Year: 1st
  • Mark: Not available
  • Words: 1500
  • Date submitted: November 03, 2016
  • Date written: April, 2016
  • References: Yes
  • Document type: Essay*
  • Essay ID: 7666

Question: TMA 04 Part 1 Write a brief report, drawing on the applied scenario provided below, in which you evaluate the claims made and account for them using psychological principles, theories and evidence. (Word count 1079)
Scenario
You are a psychologist who occasionally works in an advisory capacity for the police. You have been contacted by the officer in charge of a specialist missing persons unit. The officer has been approached by a ‘psychic’ who claims that they can assist in finding missing persons, by using their connection with the spirit world.

The psychic has provided testimonials from clients who describe successful readings in which they received messages from deceased friends and relatives. Although none of the readings involved a missing person, in one reading the psychic did contact the spirit of a client’s missing cat who had not been seen for several days. The client later discovered that the cat had been run over and killed. The psychic says that this gave them the idea of using their powers to help with missing persons cases.

The psychic claims that if they are provided with a personal item belonging to a missing person they will be able to contact that missing person if they are deceased, as the deceased spirit will be drawn to their personal item. The deceased person will then be able to provide information through the psychic about how and where they died, including clues about the identity of their killer if their death was a homicide.

Your police contact was sceptical at first but, after the psychic gave him a personal reading, is now not sure. The psychic claimed to have contacted the officer’s grandmother, Edith, and knew a lot of details about her, such as that Edith had three siblings, married twice, and died of a heart condition. Edith also knew that the officer was dealing with a lot of stress at work and told him he shouldn’t drink so much – something she always used to say to him when she was alive, and that the psychic could not possibly have guessed.

In order to decide whether to engage the psychic’s services, the officer has asked you to provide a short report on the psychology of psychic claims. He is particularly interested in how the psychic was able to provide such accurate information in his own reading.


_________________________________________________


TMA 04 Part 2 (A) Applied methods. (Word count 498)
Scenario
A psychology researcher wants to explore how people make sense of stories at different ages. The researcher plans to conduct an experimental study to compare the inferences people make at 5 years, 15 years, and 25 years of age. Participants from the three age groups will each be given a text to read, which will involve some sort of ‘mystery’. The endings of the stories will be removed and the participants will be asked to explain how they ‘should have ended’. The researcher will compare each participant’s suggested ending to the actual story endings and score them, on a percentage scale, for accuracy. The researcher plans to use age-appropriate stories, from the following sources:
• 5-year-olds: Dingo the Doggie Detective, recommended for ages 4–6
• 15-year-olds: The Riddle of Firefly Island, a young-teens novel
• 25-year-olds: True Crimes: The Woodland Ripper, a real-life murder story

Question: What are the main strengths and weaknesses of the proposed study, in terms of its design and its ethics, and how could the weaknesses be addressed.

_________________________________________________


TMA 04 Part 2 (B) Understanding and explaining data. (Word count 575)
Scenario
You are planning to conduct a study of belief in conspiracy theories using a short version of the Belief in Conspiracy Theories Inventory (BCTI). Before starting the study proper you pilot it on two people, Ali and Bo. Table 1, below, shows their responses (assume for the purposes of this assignment that the scale only consists of these four items). On this scale, 1 indicates ‘completely false’ and 9 indicates ‘completely true’. ‘X’ shows which box each participant ticked for each item (e.g. for Question 1, Ali ticked ‘5’ and Bo ticked ‘1’).

Table 1: Ali and Bo’s responses on the BCTI
Q.1 A powerful and secretive group, known as the New World Order, is planning to eventually rule the world through an autonomous world government, which would replace sovereign government.
Ali 1 2 3 4 X 6 7 8 9
Bo X 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Q.2 US agencies intentionally created the AIDS epidemic and administered it to black and gay men in the 1970s.
Ali 1 2 3 4 X 6 7 8 9
Bo 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 X

Q.3 The US government allowed the 9/11 attacks to take place so that it would have an excuse to achieve foreign (e.g. wars in Afghanistan and Iraq) and domestic (e.g. attacks on civil liberties) goals that had been determined prior to the attacks.
Ali 1 2 3 4 X 6 7 8 9
Bo 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 X

Q.4 Princess Diana’s death was not an accident, but rather an organised assassination by members of the British royal family, who disliked her.
Ali 1 2 3 4 X 6 7 8 9
Bo X 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Question: Ali and Bo have both scored 20 on this shortened version of the BCTI. What inferences would you make about Ali and Bo’s beliefs on the basis of their data, and what might their data suggest about the use of scales such as this to measure beliefs?

Answer: TMA 04 Part 1 Report: Psychological theories, principles and evidence in relation to claims of psychic abilities. Executive summary This document seeks...


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  • Subject: Law
  • Course: W101 An introduction to law
  • Level: Degree
  • Year: 1st
  • Mark: Not available
  • Words: 2152
  • Date submitted: November 03, 2016
  • Date written: April, 2016
  • References: Yes
  • Document type: Essay*
  • Essay ID: 7665

Question: TMA 03 Question 1 Explain the procedure for preliminary rulings. Discuss the impact preliminary rulings have on the relationship between the Court of Justice of the European Union and the UK law.
Word count 1000

TMA 03 Question 2 The pressure group ‘Rights for apes’, organised a small protest outside a local zoo. It believes that the police who were present infringed its members’ human rights by trying to break up the protest.
(a) Which human right is likely to apply and why?
(b) What impact does the Human Rights Act 1988 had on rights for ape’s ability to enforce this right?
(c) Can rights for apes use the Human Rights Act 1988 to challenge the UK domestic legislation which regulates peaceful protests?
Word count 799

TMA 03 Question 3 Reflection on academic progress.
Word count 177

Answer: TMA 03 Question 1 This essay aims to explain the procedure for preliminary rulings, and to discuss the impact on the relationship...


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  • Subject: Law
  • Course: W101 An introduction to law
  • Level: Degree
  • Year: 1st
  • Mark: Not available
  • Words: 1976
  • Date submitted: November 03, 2016
  • Date written: April, 2016
  • References: Yes
  • Document type: Essay*
  • Essay ID: 7664

Question: TMA 01 Question 1
(a) What is the meaning of the term ‘common law’ and what are the characteristics of a ‘common law’ system?
(b) What is the meaning of the term statute? Provide an example of a statute.
(450 words)

TMA 01 Question 2 Explain the difference between substantive justice and formal justice?
(444 words)

TMA 01 Question 3 Explain the concept of Parliamentary sovereignty.
(357 words)

TMA 01 Question 4 Why is writing in your own words an important academic skill?
(174 words)

W101 An introduction to law

Answer: TMA 01 Question 1 (a) The term common law refers to the classification of law by source. It is law that has...


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  • Subject: Law
  • Course: W101 An introduction to law
  • Level: Degree
  • Year: 1st
  • Mark: Not available
  • Words: 1425
  • Date submitted: November 02, 2016
  • Date written: January, 2016
  • References: Yes
  • Document type: Essay*
  • Essay ID: 7646

Question: TMA 02 Question 1 Explain the rules of statutory interpretation. Give an example from case law to illustrate each of the rules.
(a) Provide a plan setting out how you will address the question. (111 words)
(b) Provide an answer to the question. (906 words)

TMA 02 Question 2
(a) Explain in your own words what precedent means.
(b) 195 words

W101 An introduction to law

Answer: (b) Provide an answer to the question Statutory interpretation is the judge’s first task, which is to read the statute, understand the...


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  • Subject: Law
  • Course: W101 An introduction to law
  • Level: Degree
  • Year: 1st
  • Mark: Not available
  • Words: 1212
  • Date submitted: November 01, 2016
  • Date written: January, 2016
  • References: Yes
  • Document type: Essay*
  • Essay ID: 7645

Question: To what extent does the introduction of ‘Closed Material Procedure’ in civil justice through the introduction of the Justice and Security Act 2013 affect the principle of natural justice, especially the principle of open justice?

Answer: “It is of fundamental importance that justice should not only be done, but should manifestly and undoubtedly that justice be seen to...


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  • Subject: Law
  • Course: Common Law
  • Level: Degree
  • Year: 1st
  • Mark: Not available
  • Words: 3561
  • Date submitted: October 20, 2016
  • Date written: December, 2015
  • References: Yes
  • Document type: Essay*
  • Essay ID: 7619

Question: Does the social composition of the judiciary matter?

Answer: According to the articles and researches, many do say that the social composition of the judiciary does matter. Judiciary is a powerful...


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  • Subject: Law
  • Course: English Legal System
  • Level: Degree
  • Year: 1st
  • Mark: Not available
  • Words: 1040
  • Date submitted: March 19, 2016
  • Date written: December, 2015
  • References: Yes
  • Document type: Essay*
  • Essay ID: 7615

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