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Question: PQ: Ralph and Sophie are actors in an action film. There is a scene in which they throw knives at each other. Sophie and Ralph agree that they should film the scene with real knives in order to make it as realistic as possible, despite the obvious dangers.

Sophie in fact hates Ralph and throws a knife not caring whether or not it harms him. The knife narrowly misses Ralph’s head. Ralph throws a knife at Sophie aware there is a strong chance that it will hit her in the leg but assuming that under their agreement Sophie is prepared to take that risk.

The knife cuts Sophie in the stomach. She is taken to the emergency room of a hospital.

Dr Tao, who has drunk several pints of beer while on her shift, examines Sophie and seriously over-estimates the severity of the wound. She incorrectly tells Sophie that she is likely to be paralyzed for the rest of her life. Sophie as a result decides she would rather die and refuses all forms of treatment. The wound therefore becomes infected and Sophie dies.

What crimes, if any, have been committed?

Answer: This essay explores Ralph’s and Dr Tao’s criminal liability in causing Sophie’s death. Ultimately, it would conclude that Sophie’s refusal to treatment...


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  • Subject: Law
  • Course: Criminal Law
  • Level: Degree
  • Year: 1st
  • Mark: Not available
  • Words: 1164
  • Date submitted: March 04, 2018
  • Date written: October, 2017
  • References: No
  • Document type: Essay*
  • Essay ID: 8304

Question: When can a defendant who has lost self-control and kills rely on a defence? Is the present state of law satisfactory?

Graded 2.1, 1st year undergraduate at University of Oxford, reading Jurisprudence

Answer: The loss of self-control, which substitutes a conviction of murder with manslaughter, becomes an available defence for a defendant (D) once there...


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  • Subject: Law
  • Course: Criminal Law
  • Level: Degree
  • Year: 1st
  • Mark: Not available
  • Words: 1200
  • Date submitted: March 04, 2018
  • Date written: October, 2017
  • References: No
  • Document type: Essay*
  • Essay ID: 8303

Question: Lou, who suffers from diabetes, is married to Marie. One morning Marie tells Lou that she has been having an affair with Nell. As a result of this Lou suffers a mental breakdown. He also forgets to take his insulin. As a combined result of his diabetes and the mental breakdown, Lou begins to hear voices in his head directing him to 'punish all those who engage in acts of adultery'. He encounters Nell asleep on a bench in the local park and, obeying the voices, shaves off one of her eyebrows. Witnesses say that Lou seemed to be in a 'dreamlike' and 'dazed' state at the time.

Nell only notices her shaved eyebrow when she looks in a mirror later that day. She is so upset (she is a highly paid model and has a lucrative photo-shoot scheduled for the following day) that she runs out of the house and trips over, breaking her leg.

What crimes, if any, have been committed?


Graded 2.1, 1st year undergraduate at University of Oxford, reading Jurisprudence

Answer: Lou will be guilty of assault occasioning ABH unless he pleads insanity. Assault occasioning ABH can be broken down into three elements....


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  • Subject: Law
  • Course: Criminal Law
  • Level: Degree
  • Year: 1st
  • Mark: Not available
  • Words: 1170
  • Date submitted: March 03, 2018
  • Date written: October, 2017
  • References: No
  • Document type: Essay*
  • Essay ID: 8302

Question: Part 1 Summative assessment of R v Lehair [2015] EWCA Crim 1324.
Part 2 Analyse of R v Lehair [2015] EWCA Crim 1324

Name of the case: R v L
Name of the parties: The Queen v Nicola Lehair
Citation: [2015] EWCA Crim. 1324
Court: Court of Appeal
Judges: Macur LJ; Walker J and Zeidman QC (Judgement was delivered by Lady Justice Julia Macur)

Answer: Introduction : Problem with court decision In the case R v Lehair an appellant appealed on the ground that decision of Mr....


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  • Subject: Law
  • Course: Criminal Law
  • Level: Degree
  • Year: 2nd/3rd
  • Mark: Not available
  • Words: 2346
  • Date submitted: December 15, 2017
  • Date written: April, 2017
  • References: Yes
  • Document type: Essay*
  • Essay ID: 8250

Question: LLB LAW PERSONAL STATEMENT

Received places for LLB Law Undergraduate for
- London School of Economics (LSE)
- Queenmary University
- Cardiff University

Answer: I have a natural spirit of inquiry and advocacy and so have been attracted to law from an early age. Growing up...


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  • Subject: Law
  • Course: Law
  • Level: Degree
  • Year: 1st
  • Mark: Not available
  • Words: 3998
  • Date submitted: January 15, 2018
  • Date written: January, 2016
  • References: No
  • Document type: UCAS Personal Statement
  • Essay ID: 8249

Question: Assess the extent to which UK criminal law concerning sexual offences and offences against the person (OAP) is unsatisfactory and therefore requires reform.

Brune University London
Module Code: LX1701 and LX1703
Module Title: Criminal Law and the Criminal Justice System

Answer: To assess why reform is needed, we must first look at the extent to which some areas of law are unsatisfactory. Two...


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  • Subject: Law
  • Course: Criminal Law
  • Level: Degree
  • Year: 2nd/3rd
  • Mark: Not available
  • Words: 2497
  • Date submitted: September 14, 2017
  • Date written: February, 2017
  • References: Yes
  • Document type: Essay*
  • Essay ID: 8243

Question: EXTENSION OF TIME AND DELAYS
Alford (A) is a property development company and Balerno (B) is a well-known UK wide
contractor. A entered into a contract with B on 4 November 2013 for the construction of an
office block in St Vincent Street in London on the Standard Building Contract With Quantities
(SBC/Q) 2011 ("the Contract"). The Date for Completion is stated to be 1 December 2015.
B submitted a programme which showed completion on 2 November 2015. The Architect is
Mr C R Mackintosh of Advanced Architects. Mr Mackintosh took no issue with the programme showing early completion.

The office block is 8 storeys high with a 2 level car park below ground level. The site had
already been cleared through an earlier demolition and enabling works contract. At one end
of the site is the gable wall of an adjacent tenement block.

The Date for Possession is 1 December 2013. Work did not commence on site timeously
due to B's piling sub-contractor going into administration just prior to commencing on site.
However, a replacement piling sub-contractor was lined up within a fortnight and
commenced work on site 5 on January 2014.

The sub-contractor installed a secant piled wall around the footprint of the office block and
then proceeded to carry out excavation for the underground car park with the installation of
temporary propping. The excavation work commenced on 2 March 2014. Three days later
the owner of the adjacent tenement building reported substantial cracking of the gable wall.
This was investigated by Brunel & Co, a firm of structural engineers appointed by B. They
immediately advised that work in the vicinity of the gable wall should stop pending the
execution of remedial and strengthening work to the gable wall which was carried out by the
owner of the tenement building who indicated that he would seek reimbursement of this cost
The work in the vicinity of the gable wall stopped for a period of 10 weeks. Half way through
this period Mr Mackintosh, at the request of B, issued an instruction stating that the work in
the vicinity of the gable wall should stop pending the completion of the remedial work to the
gable wall. Once Brunel & Co confirmed that the work to the gable was fully complete Mr
Mackintosh, again at the request of B, issued an instruction that the works in the area in
question could resume. B then applied for a 10 week extension of time on the basis that
work in the vicinity of the gable wall had stopped for 10 weeks. Mr Mackintosh issued an
extension of time of 10 weeks which was stated to be due to the cracks in the gable wall. At
the time when the work stopped to the gable wall B were 6 weeks behind programme.
Thereafter B requested certain changes to the design of the car park for its own convenience
and benefit. A had no objection to this and this was confirmed by Mr Mackintosh. B
immediately thereafter applied for an extension of time of 3 weeks on the basis of change to
the design.

Good progress was made in the final few months and by the end of it B had managed to
claw back 1 month of the delay as against programme.

However, the Date for Completion came and went with B on site. On 2 December 2015 the
Architect issued a Variation and it was estimated that it would take 2 weeks to carry this
work out. Half way through it water damage occurred to certain electrical fittings due to a
flood which was caused by a sub-contractor failing to tighten an attachment to a tap
properly. It took 2 weeks to remedy the damage caused by the flood.

Practical Completion was finally certified on 19 February 2016. A has made it clear that it
intends to deduct liquidated and ascertained damages which are £50,000 per week or part
thereof.

A comes to seek your advice. A informs you that B considers that it has a valid extension of
time of 10 weeks on the basis of a postponement of part of the Works and that it has
submitted a loss and expense claim for £1.6m in respect of this. A is furious that Mr
Mackintosh issued the 10 week extension of time and wants to know how it can claw this
back. As far as A is concerned no extension of time at all is due and no loss and expense is
due either. A is aware that B is preparing to launch an adjudication and wishes to have your
advice on where it stands in relation to B. Does B have a binding extension of time? Can A
do anything about the extension of time granted? What is A's exposure to any other claims
for extension of time and also is A exposed to loss and expense? It should be noted that
whilst B has mentioned that it is claiming for extensions of time it has not notified this to the
Architect in writing. As indicated above, B has submitted a claim for loss and expense in
respect of the 10 weeks. This was done by means of its monthly applications to the quantity
surveyor under the Contract. B has made it clear at meetings that it is looking for loss and
expense for the entire period from the Date of Possession to Practical Completion.

Please provide A with a list of delay events and calculate the extend of delay for each
event. Advice A on the extent to which B may be able to pursue claims for extension
of time and loss and expense payment.

Answer: Introduction This report will analyse and evaluate the issues which arose between Alford (Client) and Balerno (Contractor) around the delays which occurred...


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  • Subject: Law
  • Course: Contract Law
  • Level: Degree
  • Year: 1st
  • Mark: Not available
  • Words: 1629
  • Date submitted: December 28, 2017
  • Date written: March, 2017
  • References: No
  • Document type: Essay*
  • Essay ID: 8228

Question: Question 1
Canning Town Construction Ltd (“Canning Town”) and Super Hotels Ltd (“Super Hotels”) were negotiating a contract for the refurbishment and extension of a hotel near Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park. Negotiations dragged on because the parties could not agree the amount for liquidated damages, the extent of the variations clauses and the adjudication procedure.

Super Hotels sent a letter headed “Subject to contract”, instructing Canning Town to start work pending agreement of a formal written contract. Negotiations continued, with various correspondence and several meetings, but no final written contract was ever agreed.
During these negotiations, Canning Town carried out the work as requested and Super Hotels made monthly payments to them.

After the work had been completed, Super Hotels claimed that some of the work was defective. Canning Town said they were not responsible because no contract existed between the parties.

Advise Super Hotels Ltd of its legal position, regarding whether a binding contract had been formed.


Question 2
Green Fingers Garden Centres Limited (“Green Fingers”) have employed Rivington Construction Ltd (“Rivington”) to build a garden centre, including office space, 3 greenhouses, a large shop area, car parking and landscaped gardens. The JCT Standard Building Contract with Quantities 2016 has been used and work has commenced.

Green Fingers have been making several variations to the Works which Rivington have complied with. Green Fingers are now asking that Rivington create a boating lake in the landscaped garden area.

Rivington do not want to build this, having no expertise in the area.

Please advise whether or not they are bound to do the works and, if so, how works may be valued.

Answer: Question 1 25th March 2017 Super Hotels Ltd 103 Borough Road London SE1 0AA Dear Sirs, RE: Defective work - Legal position...


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  • Subject: Law
  • Course: Contract Law
  • Level: Degree
  • Year: 1st
  • Mark: Not available
  • Words: 1935
  • Date submitted: December 28, 2017
  • Date written: March, 2017
  • References: No
  • Document type: Essay*
  • Essay ID: 8227

Question: Explore the effect of Hunter v Moss on certainty of subject matter.

Answer: The case of Hunter v Moss 1994 relates to the requirement of certainty of subject matter within creation trusts. The ‘three certainties’...


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  • Subject: Law
  • Course: Equity and Trust Law
  • Level: Degree
  • Year: 2nd/3rd
  • Mark: Not available
  • Words: 1161
  • Date submitted: December 27, 2017
  • Date written: November, 2016
  • References: No
  • Document type: Essay*
  • Essay ID: 8224

Question: Foundations of the law of obligation

Summative assessment Part B:
‘The reasoning in duty of care cases […] reveals a policy underlying the imposition of duties of care based on considerations of interpersonal justice, namely the policy that wrongs should be remedied.’
Discuss the extent to which you agree with this statement.

Answer: The original aim of tort law is to compensate the victim of the wrong, usually by a payment of damages or to...


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  • Subject: Law
  • Course: Tort Law
  • Level: Degree
  • Year: 2nd/3rd
  • Mark: Not available
  • Words: 997
  • Date submitted: December 27, 2017
  • Date written: November, 2016
  • References: Yes
  • Document type: Essay*
  • Essay ID: 8223

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